Carina Carbon Secure, the engineered acoustic sensing -based CCS monitoring solution, provides a long-term, on-demand and cost-effective seismic monitoring solution for safe CO2 storage. It does so with minimal environmental impact.

Carbon Cature and Storage (CCS) is the only technology available today that has the potential to capture greenhouse gas on large scale. However, CCS projects  need to demonstrate maximum safety and ensure through monitoring that the injected CO2 is safely contained within the geological store during and after injection, over the lifetime of the storage reservoir, which can be several hundred years.

Carina Carbon Secure makes CCS safer and more affordable, and therefore facilitates faster adoption of the technology in industry.

Using permanently installed fibre optic cables in COinjection or observation wells, the engineered fibre optic system enables ultra-high definition 4D seismic and microseismic data acquisition on demand. This allows CO2 storage site operators to perform more frequent active seismic acquisitions at a much lower cost and with a much smaller environmental footprint. This enables them to confirm caprock integrity and understand the evolution of the CO2 plume within the reservoir.

The same fibre optic cables can be used for passive monitoring and detecting microseismic events, hence addressing concerns over seismic hazard and leakage pathways, including the integrity of the caprock or the wellbore.


  • Reliable monitoring throughout the entire CO2 storage site
  • Continuous or on-demand high-resolution 4D imaging of the CO2 plume and seismicity monitoring
  • Cost-effective solution with minimal seismic source requirement and environmental impact
  • Facilitating faster CCS adoption worldwide

The enabling technology

Carina® Carbon Secure offers a breakthrough performance by using the Carina® Sensing System, enabled by the precision engineered Constellation™ fibre, to achieve 100x improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to DAS systems using standard fibres.

Constellation fibre is engineered with brighter backscatter centres along its length to capture and reflect 100x more light back to the interrogator without creating significant loss to the forward propagating laser pulses. It is this increased sensitivity that enables seismic data acquisition with significantly reduced source effort, operating time and, ultimately project costs, compared to conventional surveys.

Additionally, the system achieves much higher spatial coverage than is typical of traditional technologies, delivering data with greater detail in each shot record compared to geophones.

A proven solution

Silixa has been providing distributed-sensing based monitoring solutions primarily to the energy industry since 2010, demonstating a strong record of succes. Many of the in-well and surface iDAS™ , Carina® and DTS applications targeted at the upstream oil and gas industry, such as high-resolution time-lapse 4D seismic and microseismic, are also a natural fit for CCS monitoring.

With deep sector knowledge and a technological advantage ensured by the preformance of the engineered Carina® Sensing System, Silixa is well positioned to pave the way to a decarbonised future by offering a dependable CCS monitoring solution, hence facilitating faster CCS adoption worldwide.

Ongoing projects

CCS monitoring at Aquistore, Saskatchewan, Canada

Aquistore, the world’s first combined commercial power plant and CCS project, is located in Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada. It is managed by the Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC).  CO2 is captured at the nearby SaskPower Boundary Dam coalfired power plant and is injected into a deep reservoir via a 3,000 m injection well, where more than 275,000 tonnes of CO2 has been permanently stored since April 2015.

Silixa’s CCS monitoring solution has been used at Aquistore since 2013 to provide baseline and monitoring data via VSP surveys, with the most recent being in January 2020. These data have been used to image the CO2storage reservoir and track the extent of the CO2 plume and verify caprock integrity. Significant leakage of CO2from the storage reservoir would be observable in the seismic response.

CCS monitoring with Carina Carbon Secure

Extent of CO2 plume (bright colours) monitored over time with 3D VSP surveys recorded on a fibre-optic cable and Silixa iDAS unit. Monitoring surveys were conducted after 36kT, 102kT and 141kT of CO2 were injected (courtesy of Don White, Geological Survey, Canada).

Otway, Australia

CO2CRC’s Otway research facility is Australia’s first demonstration of the deep geological storage of CO2. It is the world’s largest CCS demonstration project; with over 80,000 tonnes of CO2 injected and stored in a variety of geological formations.

Silixa’s CCS monitoring solution was deployed at the site in 2017.