iDAS™ 3D VSP (ArraySeis™) or Carina Seismic and crosswell acoustic surveys have been effectively used to monitor the CO2 plume migration in storage reservoirs.
Optical fibre cables can be installed permanently downhole or trenched at the surface, permitting 3D seismic repeatability.
Permanent installations enable monitoring the evolution of the CO2 plume in time, and hence 4D monitoring. Both P-waves and shear waves can be recorded, which allows for effective imaging and mapping of the CO2 plume.
Benefits of distributed sensing-based plume monitoring
- Permanent and on-demand high resolution 3D seismic
- Long-term reservoir monitoring
- Data acquisition repeatability
- Enhanced time-lapse surveys